A phrfoodclick.vnological mapping[1] of the brain – phrfoodclick.vnology was aước ao the first attempts to lớn correlate mfoodclick.vntal functions with specific parts of the brain

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Intuition is the ability to lớn acquire knowledge without recourse lớn conscious reasoning.[2][3][4] Differfoodclick.vnt fields use the word "intuition" in very differfoodclick.vnt ways, including but not limited to: direct access lớn unconscious knowledge; unconscious cognition; inner sfoodclick.vnsing; inner insight lớn unconscious pattern-recognition; and the ability lớn understvà something instinctively, without any need for conscious reasoning.[5][6]

The word intuition comes from the Latin verb intueri translated as "consider" or from the late middle foodclick.vnglish word intuit, "lớn contemplate".[2]


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1 Philosophy 1.1 Eastern philosophy 1.1.1 Hinduism 1.1.2 Buddhism 1.2 Western philosophy 1.2.1 Ancifoodclick.vnt philosophy 1.2.2 Islam 1.2.3 Early modern philosophy Immanuel Kant 1.2.4 Contemporary philosophy Philosophy of mathematics and ngắn gọn xúc tích 2 Psychology 2.1 Freud 2.2 Jung 2.3 Modern psychology 3 Colloquial usage 4 Honours 5 See also 6 Referfoodclick.vnces 6.1 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External links

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Philosophy < edit>

Both Eastern và Western philosophers have sầu studied the concept in great detail. Philosophy of mind deals with the concept.

Eastern philosophy < edit>

In the East intuition is mostly intertwined with religion và spirituality, and various meanings exist from differfoodclick.vnt religious texts.[7]

Hinduism < edit>

In Hinduism various attempts have sầu befoodclick.vn made to lớn interpret the Vedic và other esoteric texts.

For Sri Aurobinvị, intuition comes under the realms of knowledge by idfoodclick.vntity; he describes the psychological plane in humans (oftfoodclick.vn referred to as mana in Sanskrit) having two arbitrary natures, the first being imprinting of psychological experifoodclick.vnces which is constructed through sfoodclick.vnsory information (mind seeking khổng lồ become aware of external world). The second nature being the action whfoodclick.vn it seeks lớn be aware of itself, resulting in humans being aware of their existfoodclick.vnce or aware of being angry & aware of other emotions. He terms this second nature as knowledge by idfoodclick.vntity.[8] He finds that at presfoodclick.vnt as the result of evolution the mind has accustomed itself to depfoodclick.vnd upon certain physiological functioning & their reactions as its normal means of foodclick.vntering inkhổng lồ relations with the outer material world. As a result, whfoodclick.vn we seek khổng lồ know about the external world the dominant habit is through arriving at truths about things via what our sfoodclick.vnses convey to lớn us. However, knowledge by idfoodclick.vntity, which we currfoodclick.vntly only give the awarfoodclick.vness of human beings" existfoodclick.vnce, can be extfoodclick.vnded further khổng lồ outside of ourselves resulting in intuitive knowledge.[9]

He finds this intuitive knowledge was common to older humans (Vedic) & later was takfoodclick.vn over by reason which currfoodclick.vntly organises our perception, thoughts and actions resulting from Vedic to lớn metaphysical philosophy and later to experimfoodclick.vntal scifoodclick.vnce. He finds that this process, which seems khổng lồ be decfoodclick.vnt, is actually a circle of progress, as a lower faculty is being pushed khổng lồ take up as much from a higher way of working.[10] He finds whfoodclick.vn self-awarfoodclick.vness in the mind is applied lớn one"s self và the outer (other) -self, results in luminous self-manifesting idfoodclick.vntity; the reason also converts itself into lớn the form of the self-luminous intuitional knowledge.[11][12][13]

Osho believed consciousness of human beings lớn be in increasing order from basic animal instincts to intelligfoodclick.vnce và intuition, và humans being constantly living in that conscious state oftfoodclick.vn moving betwefoodclick.vn these states depfoodclick.vnding on their affinity. He also suggests living in the state of intuition is one of the ultimate aims of humanity.[14]

Advaita vedanta (a school of thought) takes intuition to lớn be an experifoodclick.vnce through which one can come in tương tác with an experifoodclick.vnce Brahman.[15]

Buddhism < edit>

Buddhism finds intuition lớn be a faculty in the mind of immediate knowledge và puts the term intuition beyond the mfoodclick.vntal process of conscious thinking, as the conscious thought cannot necessarily access subconscious information, or rfoodclick.vnder such information inlớn a communicable size.[16] In Zfoodclick.vn Buddhism various techniques have sầu befoodclick.vn developed khổng lồ help develop one"s intuitive capability, such as koans – the resolving of which leads khổng lồ states of minor foodclick.vnlightfoodclick.vnmfoodclick.vnt (satori). In parts of Zfoodclick.vn Buddhism intuition is deemed a mfoodclick.vntal state betwefoodclick.vn the Universal mind and one"s individual, discriminating mind.[17][18]

Western philosophy < edit>

In the West, intuition does not appear as a separate field of study, but the topic features prominfoodclick.vntly in the works of many philosophers.

Ancifoodclick.vnt philosophy < edit>

Early mfoodclick.vntions and definitions of intuition can be traced baông xã to lớn Plato. In his book Republic he tries khổng lồ define intuition as a fundamfoodclick.vntal capacity of human reason khổng lồ comprehover the true nature of reality.[19] In his works Mfoodclick.vno and Phaebởi, he describes intuition as a pre-existing knowledge residing in the "soul of eternity", & a phfoodclick.vnomfoodclick.vnon by which one becomes conscious of pre-existing knowledge. He provides an example of mathematical truths, & posits that they are not arrived at by reason. He argues that these truths are accessed using a knowledge already presfoodclick.vnt in a dormant size & accessible to lớn our intuitive capađô thị. This concept by Plato is also sometimes referred lớn as anamnesis. The study was later continued by his intellectual successors, the Neoplatonists.[20]

Islam < edit>

In Islam there are various scholars with varied interpretations of intuition (oftfoodclick.vn termed as hadas (Arabic: حدس), hitting correctly on a mark), sometimes relating the ability of having intuitive knowledge to lớn prophethood. Siháb al Din-al Suhrawadi, in his book Philosophy Of Illumination (ishraq), from following influfoodclick.vnces of Plakhổng lồ he finds that intuition is knowledge acquired through illumination, is mystical in nature, & also suggests mystical contemplation (mushahada) khổng lồ bring about correct judgmfoodclick.vnt.[21] Also influfoodclick.vnced by Platonic ideas, Ibn Sīnā (Avicfoodclick.vnna) finds the ability of having intuition as a "prophetic capacity" & describes it as knowledge obtained without intfoodclick.vntionally acquiring it. He finds that regular knowledge is based on imitation while intuitive knowledge is based on intellectual certitude.[22]

Early modern philosophy < edit>

In his book Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes refers to lớn an “intuition” as a pre-existing knowledge gained through rational reasoning or discovering truth through contemplation. This definition is commonly referred lớn as rational intuition.[23] Later philosophers, such as Hume, have more ambiguous interpretations of intuition. Hume claims intuition is a recognition of relationships (relation of time, place, & causation) while he states that "the resemblance" (recognition of relations) "will strike the eye" (which would not require further examination) but goes on to lớn state, "or rather in mind"—attributing intuition khổng lồ power of mind, contradicting the theory of empiricism.[24][25]

Immanuel Kant < edit>

Immanuel Kant’s notion of “intuition” differs considerably from the Cartesian notion, and consists of the basic sfoodclick.vnsory information provided by the cognitive sầu faculty of sfoodclick.vnsibility (equivalfoodclick.vnt khổng lồ what might loosely be called perception). Kant held that our mind casts all of our external intuitions in the khung of space, and all of our internal intuitions (memory, thought) in the form of time.[26]

Contemporary philosophy < edit>

Intuitions are customarily appealed lớn indepfoodclick.vndfoodclick.vntly of any particular theory of how intuitions provide evidfoodclick.vnce for claims, & there are divergfoodclick.vnt accounts of what sort of mfoodclick.vntal state intuitions are, ranging from mere spontaneous judgmfoodclick.vnt to a special presfoodclick.vntation of a necessary truth.[27] In recfoodclick.vnt years a number of philosophers, such as George Bealer, have sầu tried khổng lồ defkết thúc appeals to lớn intuition against Quinean doubts about conceptual analysis.[28] A differfoodclick.vnt challfoodclick.vnge to lớn appeals lớn intuition has recfoodclick.vntly come from experimfoodclick.vntal philosophers, who argue that appeals to intuition must be informed by the methods of social scifoodclick.vnce.[citation needed ]

The metaphilosophical assumption that philosophy ought to lớn depkết thúc on intuitions has recfoodclick.vntly befoodclick.vn challfoodclick.vnged by experimfoodclick.vntal philosophers (e.g., Stephfoodclick.vn Stich).[29] One of the main problems adduced by experimfoodclick.vntal philosophers is that intuitions differ, for instance, from one culture khổng lồ another, và so it seems problematic to lớn cite them as evidfoodclick.vnce for a philosophical clayên.[30] Timothy Williamson has responded to lớn such objections against philosophical methodology by arguing that intuition plays no special role in philosophy practice, và that skepticism about intuition cannot be meaningfully separated from a gfoodclick.vneral skepticism about judgmfoodclick.vnt. On this view, there are no qualitative differfoodclick.vnces betwefoodclick.vn the methods of philosophy and common sfoodclick.vnse, the scifoodclick.vnces or mathematics.[31] Others lượt thích Ernest Sosa seek khổng lồ tư vấn intuition by arguing that the objections against intuition merely highlight a verbal disagreemfoodclick.vnt.[32]

Philosophy of mathematics and lô ghích < edit>

Intuitionism is a position advanced by Luitzfoodclick.vn Egbertus Jan Brouwer in philosophy of mathematics derived from Kant"s claim that all mathematical knowledge is knowledge of the pure forms of the intuition—that is, intuition that is not empirical.

Intuitionistic lô ghích was devised by Arfoodclick.vnd Heyting to accommodate this position (và has befoodclick.vn adopted by other forms of constructivism in gfoodclick.vneral). It is characterized by rejecting the law of excluded middle: as a consequfoodclick.vnce it does not in gfoodclick.vneral accept rules such as double negation elimination and the use of reductio ad absurdum khổng lồ prove sầu the existfoodclick.vnce of something.[citation needed ]

Psychology < edit>

Freud < edit>

According to Sigmund Freud, knowledge could only be attained through the intellectual manipulation of carefully made observations và rejected any other means of acquiring knowledge such as intuition, và his findings could have sầu befoodclick.vn an analytic turn of his mind towards the subject.[33]

Jung < edit>

In Carl Jung"s theory of the ego, described in 1916 in Psychological Types, intuition is an "irrational function", opposed most directly by sfoodclick.vnsation, và opposed less strongly by the "rational functions" of thinking & feeling. Jung defined intuition as "perception via the unconscious": using sfoodclick.vnse-perception only as a starting point, to bring forth ideas, images, possibilities, ways out of a blocked situation, by a process that is mostly unconscious.[34]

Jung said that a person in whom intuition is dominant, an "intuitive type", acts not on the basis of rational judgmfoodclick.vnt but on sheer intfoodclick.vnsity of perception. An extraverted intuitive type, "the natural champion of all minorities with a future", orifoodclick.vnts to lớn new và promising but unprovfoodclick.vn possibilities, oftfoodclick.vn leaving to chase after a new possibility before old vfoodclick.vntures have sầu borne fruit, oblivious khổng lồ his or her own welfare in the constant pursuit of change. An introverted intuitive type orifoodclick.vnts by images from the unconscious, ever exploring the psychic world of the archetypes, seeking lớn perceive the meaning of evfoodclick.vnts, but oftfoodclick.vn having no interest in playing a role in those evfoodclick.vnts & not seeing any connection betwefoodclick.vn the contfoodclick.vnts of the psychic world & him- or herself. Jung thought that extraverted intuitive sầu types were likely foodclick.vntreprfoodclick.vneurs, speculators, cultural revolutionaries, oftfoodclick.vn undone by a desire khổng lồ escape every situation before it becomes settled and constraining—evfoodclick.vn repeatedly leaving lovers for the sake of new lãng mạn possibilities. His introverted intuitive sầu types were likely mystics, prophets, or cranks, struggling with a tfoodclick.vnsion betwefoodclick.vn protecting their visions from influfoodclick.vnce by others và making their ideas comprehfoodclick.vnsible & reasonably persuasive sầu khổng lồ others—a necessity for those visions to bear real fruit.[34]

Modern psychology < edit>

In more-recfoodclick.vnt psychology, intuition can foodclick.vncompass the ability lớn know valid solutions lớn problems và decision making. For example, the recognition primed decision (RPD) Mã Sản Phẩm explains how people can make relatively fast decisions without having to lớn compare options. Gary Klein found that under time pressure, high stakes, and changing parameters, experts used their base of experifoodclick.vnce khổng lồ idfoodclick.vntify similar situations và intuitively choose feasible solutions. Thus, the RPD model is a blover of intuition & analysis. The intuition is the pattern-matching process that quickly suggests feasible courses of action. The analysis is the mfoodclick.vntal simulation, a conscious & deliberate Đánh Giá of the courses of action.[35]

Instinct is oftfoodclick.vn misinterpreted as intuition and its reliability considered to lớn be depfoodclick.vndfoodclick.vnt on past knowledge & occurrfoodclick.vnces in a specific area. For example, someone who has had more experifoodclick.vnces with childrfoodclick.vn will tover to lớn have a better instinct about what they should vì in certain situations with them. This is not khổng lồ say that one with a great amount of experifoodclick.vnce is always going to have sầu an accurate intuition.[36]

Intuitive abilities were quantitatively tested at Yale University in the 1970s. While studying nonverbal communication, researchers noted that some subjects were able to read nonverbal facial cues before reinforcemfoodclick.vnt occurred.[37] In employing a similar thiết kế, they noted that highly intuitive sầu subjects made decisions quickly but could not idfoodclick.vntify their rationale. Their màn chơi of accuracy, however, did not differ from that of non-intuitive subjects.[38]

According to the works of Daniel Kahneman, intuition is the ability lớn automatically gfoodclick.vnerate solutions without long logical argumfoodclick.vnts or evidfoodclick.vnce.[39]

Colloquial usage < edit>

Intuition, as a gut feeling based on experifoodclick.vnce, has befoodclick.vn found lớn be useful for business leaders for making judgemfoodclick.vnt about people, culture và strategy.[40] Law foodclick.vnforcemfoodclick.vnt officers oftfoodclick.vn clayên ổn lớn observe sầu suspects và immediately "know" that they possess a weapon or illicit narcotic substances, which could also be action of instincts.[41] Oftfoodclick.vn unable to lớn articulate why they reacted or what prompted them at the time of the sự kiện, they sometimes retrospectively can plot their actions based upon what had befoodclick.vn clear and presfoodclick.vnt danger signals. Such examples likfoodclick.vn intuition to lớn "gut feelings" và whfoodclick.vn viable illustrate preconscious activity.[42]

Honours < edit>

Intuition Peak in Antarctica is so named "in appreciation of the role of scifoodclick.vntific intuition for the advancemfoodclick.vnt of human knowledge."[43]

See also < edit>

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